Urwanda rumaze imyaka 50 rwigenga : Ese ubundi rwagengwaga na nde ?(leprophete.fr)

Publié le par veritas

 

Richard KANDT, Rezida w' Urwanda kuva 1907 kugera 1913. Yatangije Umudugudu wa Kigali mu 1908.

1.ABADAGE


Mu gusubiza ikibazo kigira kiti “Urwanda rwakolonijwe na nde ?”, uwavuga ko rwakojejwe hirya no hino ntabwo yaba abeshye. Ibihugu by’Afurika Abanyaburayi babanje kugeramo ni ibikora ku nyanja zikikije uwo mugabane : Mediterane mu majyaruguru, Inyanja y’Abahindi mu burasirazuba na Atalantika mu burengerazuba.

 

Guhera mu w’1874 Abanyaburayi barakataje, bajagajaga Afurika yose, batangira kugera no muri bya bihugu biri kure y’inyanja muri Afurika rwagati. Ibyo ntibyashoboraga gukorwa mu kajagari, hagombaga amategeko abigenga kugirango ababyishoyemo birinde amakimbirane yavuka hagati yabo bapfa ko umwe ashaka gufata hanini cyangwa ubukungu n’izindi nyungu baba basanze ahantu aha n’aha.


Ni bwo rero abategetsi b’ibihugu 14 (Ubufaransa, Otirishe-Ungariya,Ububiligi, Danimariki, Esipanye, Porutugali, Uburusiya, Ubwongereza, Ubutaliyani, Ubuholandi, Suwedi, Noruvegi, Turukiya na Leta zunze ubumwe bw’Amerika) bahuriye mu nama ikomeye  yabereye mu mugi wa Berlin mu Budage (Conférence de Berlin) kuva le 15/11/1884 kugera le 26/02/1885. Bageze ku mwanzuro uvuga ko buri wese muri bo azajya ahagurukira aho yari asanzwe n’ubudi afite ibirindiro kuri imwe mu nyanja zikikije Afurika, akamenyesha abandi aho ageze akonda yinjira imbere muri Afurika, akabereka n’amasezerano yagiranye n’Abanyafurika basanzwe bategeka aho hantu. Icyo gihe nta munyamahanga wundi wagombaga kuza kuhamuvogera.


Nyamara ibyo ntibyabujije amakimbirane kubaho kubera ko buri wese yakururaga yishyira. Abongereza bifuzaga kwigarurira uburasirazuba bwose bw’Afurika kuva mu Misiri kugera muri Afurika y’epfo unyuze muri Tanganyika (Tanzaniya). Abanyaportugali bari muri Angola no muri Mozambiki bifuzaga agace kose kari hagati y’ibyo bihugu byombi. Ufashe ikarita y’Afurika n’ubu, ukareba ibihugu byahoze bikolonizwa n’Ubufaransa, wabona ukuntu bari barashyize ijanja kuri Afurika y’Uburengerazuba no ku gice kinini cy’iy’amajyaruguru.

 

Abadage bari muri Afurika y’uburengerazuba (Kameruni na Togo) no muri Tanganyika. Bifuzaga ko ibihugu biri hagati y’aho hantu hombi byaba ibyabo. Ibyo byose ntibyashobokaga, bamwe bagombye kujya basubiza amerwe mu isaho ariko bagononwa. Nk’Ababiligi bifuzaga ko ubuso bwa Kongo yabo bwakwambuka ikiyaga cya Kivu, bugafata kimwe cya kabili cy’Urwanda uko turuzi ubu. Ibirindiro bari barashinze i Cyangugu, i Rubengera no ku Gisenyi babivuyemo mu w’1897, ariko mu w’1910 ni bwo Abadage bakolinizaga Urwanda, Abongereza bakolonizaga Uganda n’Ababiligi bari muri Kongo barangije kumvikana ku mipaka y’ibyo bihugu bakolinizaga ku buryo budasubirwaho kuko ariyo mipaka ikiriho kugeza n’ubu.


Tugarutse rero ku Urwanda nyirizina, Abadage n’Abongereza bari muri Afurika y’uburengerazuba bararwifuzaga. Abongereza buruhariye burundu Abadage mu w’1888. Icyo Abadage baje kwita intara yabo muri Afurika y’uburengerazuba (Afrique Orientale Allemande) yari ibumbye Tanzaniya, Uburundi n’Urwanda by’ubu, cyavutse ku mugaragaro le 01/01/1891, ariko Abadage bageze mu Rwanda baje kurukoloniza nyabyo mu w’1897. Kugera mu w’1907 ubutegetsi bwabo mu Rwanda bwari ubwa gisirikari, mu w’1907 bweguriwe abasivili, intambara ya mbere y’isi yose itangiye abasirikari barabusubirana kugera mu w’1916, igihe Ababiligi batsindaga Abadage mu Rwanda, bakahabirukana.


Mu myaka 20 Abadage bamaze bakoloniza Urwanda, bahakoze ibintu byinshi. Bimwe muri byo ni nko :


1.Gushyigikira umwami Musinga, kwica abanzi be bari bamumereye nabi kuva igihe bicikiye ku Rucunshu mu w’1896 no kugarura ituze mu duce twinshi tw’Urwanda twari twarigometse ku butegetsi bwe. Abadage ni bo bahaye Musinga kwicaza amatako yombi ku ntebe ya cyami, naho ubundi yariho idigibana cyane.


2.Gushinga ishuli i Nyanza mu w’1901. Iryo shuri ryakiraga abana b’abatware gusa. Mbere yo kujya i Nyanza babanzaga kwitegurira mu yandi mashuri yari i Cyangugu, mu Ruhengeri, i Gatsibo n’i Rukira. Bigaga kubara, gusoma no kwandika, bakiga igiswahili n’ikidage, ariko igihe kinini kigaharirwa kwiga kurashisha imbunda n’indi myitozo ya gisirikari. Iryo shuri ryaje gufungwa mu w’1931, risimburwa n’urwunge rw’amashuri rw’i Butare mu w’1932. Burya rwari rwarubakiwe abana b’abatware gusa, kandi bose bari Abatutsi gusa.


3.Gukoresha ifaranga mu Rwanda no gutoza Abanyayarwanda guhinga ibihingwa ngengabukungu.


4.Gushinga mu w’1908 umudugudu wa Kigali waje gukura ukaba umujyi, ndetse ukaba n’umurwa mukuru w’Urwanda rwigenga. Mbere yaho Urwanda nta murwa mukuru rwagiraga. Umwami yazengurukaga igihugu cyose, umurwa mukuru ukaba aho yaraye cyangwa aho yiriwe. Umwami yatangiye guhama i Nyanza mu myaka ya mbere y’ingoma ya Musinga atari uko yari yanze gukomeza kuzenguruka igihugu, ahubwo ari ukubera ko indagu nta handi zerekanaga yajya kumara igihe.


5.Kuzana ibikorwa by’amajyambere nk’imihanda no kubaka amazu y’amatafari, ariko kenshi bigakoreshwa ku ngufu.


6.Kumenyekanisha Urwanda mu mahanga.


7.Intambara ya mbere y’isi yose yaburijemo umushinga wari umaze kwemezwa n’inteko ishinga amategeko y’Ubudage yo kubaka inzira ya gariyamoshi y’ibilometero 500 kuva i Tabora muri Tanzaniya kugera ku Rusumo ; kuva ku Rusumo kugera i Kigali bagatunganya uruzi rwa Nyabarongo ku buryo rwari kujya runyurwamo n’amato manini.


N’ubwo Abadage bari bakomeye ku nyungu zikomoka ku bukoloni no ku ishema ryo kwitwa “mpatsibihugu”, birinze kohereza abakozi bahagije b’Abadage muri ibyo bihugu, bahitamo kujya biyegereza Abanyafurika bamwe ngo babafashe gutegeka abandi. Mu Rwanda bahisemo Abatutsi. Ku mutwaro wa gihake wari usanzwe uremereye Abanyarwanda, cyane cyane abo mu bwoko bw’Abahutu, haba hiyongereyeho uwa gikolonize. Naho ku Batutsi bamwe bari batoranijwe ngo bunganire Abadage, byari “amata abyaye amavuta”. Ku nyungu bavanaga mu buhake, hari hiyongereyeho ibihembo bari kujya bahabwa n’Abadage kuko bari babaye abakozi babo. Iyo umuntu yimereye neza rero, ntamenya ko abandi bababaye, aka wa mugani ngo “Umusonga w’undi ntukubuza gusisinzira”.


Mu w’1916 intambara ya mbere y’isi yose (1914-1918) yari igeze hagati. Muri uwo mwaka Ababiligi banesheje Abadage mu Rwanda, barabirukana. Kuva icyo gihe, Ababiligi bakolonije Urwanda kugera mu w’1962. Kugirango umuntu yumve neza icyo Ababiligi bashimirwa n’icyo bagawa muri iyo myaka 46 bamaze bakoloniza Urwanda, ni ngombwa kubanza kumenya uko inzego z’ubutegetsi gakondo zari zimeze mu Rwanda mbere y’umwaduko w’Abadage ; ari nako zari zikimeze, ahubwo zaranakomeye kurushaho igihe Ababiligi bazunguye Abadage. Ibyo ni byo tuzarebera hamwe ubutaha.


Banyarwanda, Banyarwandakazi, urubuga rwanyu Umuhanuzi-leprophete rubifurije ko mwazagira mwese Isabukuru nziza y’imyaka 50 Urwanda rumaze rwigenga.


Padiri F.Rudakemwa


 

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