Urwanda rumaze imya 50 rwigenga : Ubuhake ntaho bwari butaniye n'Ubucakara !(leprophete.fr)

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Umugabekazi Kanjogera n'umuhungu we Musinga.

2. Uko inzego gakondo z’ubutegetsi zari zimeze mu Rwanda rwa kera


A. Inzego z’ubutegetsi


Ubushize twaganiriye ku Badage bakolonije Urwanda kuva mu w’1897 kugera mu w’1916. Bazunguwe n’Ababiligi kugera mu w’1962. Twabonye ko kugirango tumenye icyo Ababiligi bashimwa n’icyo bagawa, ari ngombwa rwose kubanza kumva uko inzego gakondo z’ubutegetsi zari zimeze mu Rwanda mbere y’umwaduko w’Abazungu. Ni byo tugiye kuganiraho ubungubu.


Umutegetsi mukuru w’Urwanda rwa kera yari ingoma Karinga. Mu mitambagiro, mu birori, mu guhabwa icyubahiro (préséance, protocole), yazaga imbere y’umwami. Urwanda rwashoboraga guterwa, rukaba rwanatsindwa, yewe se n’umwami warwo agafatwa mpiri, akaba yanicwa. Igihe cyose ingoma Karinga yabaga itarafatwa, umwanzi yabaga ataratsinda, yabaga atarigarurira Urwanda.


Nyuma ya Karinga hakurikiragaho umwami. Umwami ariko yanganyaga ububasha n’umugabekazi, ni ukuvuga nyina. Dore bimwe mu bibyerekana. Icyambere ni uko iyo umwami wari ku ngoma yabaga amaze gutanga (gupfa), Abiru babanzaga guhitamo mu bagore be uzaba umugabekazi. Nyuma bagahita mu bahungu b’uwo mugore ukwiye kuba umwami. Ntibahitagamo umukuru byanze bikunze, bahitagamo uwo babonaga abishoboye kandi abikwiye kurusha abandi. Icya kabiri ni uko iyo umwami yapfaga mbere y’umugabekazi (nyina), umugabekazi nawe yagombaga gupfa. Akenshi yanywaga uburozi cyangwa akaryama agaramye ku gitanda, bakamushyira umubirikira (entonnoir) mu kanwa, bagasukamo amata kugeza ubwo amuhuba umwaka, ntabashe guhumeka, agapfa. Icyo gihe baravugaga ngo umugabekazi yanyoye.


Mu Rwanda habayeho abagabekazi benshi b’ibishegabo bitegekeraga igihugu, abami bagasigara ari ab’umurimbo gusa. Umwe muri bo ni nka Kanjogera nyina wa Musinga (1897-1931), undi ni nka Nyiramavugo Nyiramongi nyina wa Mutara wa 2 Rwogera (?-1853). Abo rwose ntibavugirwagamo. Na Nyiramavugo Kankazi nyina wa Rudahigwa (1931-1959) yarabigerageje, ariko ntibyamushobokera kubera ko ibihe byari byarahindutse.


Urwanda rwari rugabanijemo Ibiti banitaga kandi Intara. Muri buri giti umwami yabaga ahagarariwe n’Abatware 3 uw’ingabo, uw’ubutaka n’uw’umukenke. Umukuru muri bo yari uw’ingabo, ku buryo iyo bavugaga “umutware” nta kindi bongeyeho, byasobanuraga “umutware w’ingabo”. Hari igihe umutware w’ingabo yabaga ari n’umutware w’ibindi byose. Kuba umutware mu rwego rw’Igiti (uw’ingabo, ubutaka cyangwa umukenke) byari umwihariko w’Abatutsi.


Ibiti byari bigabanyijemo Ibikingi. Igikingi cyabaga kigizwe n’umusozi umwe cyangwa myinshi (collines). Buri mutware muri bariya batwaraga Igiti yashyiragaho umuhagarariye mu Bikingi bigize Igiti cye. No mu rwego rw’Igikingi abatware b’Abatutsi ni bo babaga ari benshi, ariko harimo n’Abahutu n’Abatwa. Icyakora Abahutu n’Abatutsi bakomezaga kunena Umutwa kabone n’abatuye mu Gikingi ategeka. Ntibasangiraga nawe, ntibanyweraga ku muheha umwe na we. Byongeye kandi, mu kuzamuka mu ntera Umutwa ntiyashoboraga kurenga urwego rwo kuba umutware w’Igikingi. Cyaraziraga ko yatwara Igiti, ariko ku muntu w’Umuhutu byarashobokaga, uretse ko bitari bikunze kubonekera.


Ibindi biteye amatsiko ni ibirebana n’umutware w’ingabo. Ntabwo yabaga ari we ku izina gusa, yabaga afite ingabo ategeka koko. Izo ngabo ariko zabaga zituye mu Biti binyuranye by’u Rwanda. Umutware w’ingabo utuye ikantarange yabaga afite ijambo n’ububasha ku nka, ku nzuri no ku bundi bukungu buri musirikari akesha kuba ari mu ngabo ze aho yaba atuye hose. Hari n’ubwo ingabo iyi n’iyi yikundiraga kandi ikumvira umutware wayo utuye iyo bigwa kurusha uko yabigiriraga umutware w’Igiti ituyemo.


B. Ibintu byose byari iby’umwami


Kugirango twumve neza inshingano z’abari mu nzego z’ubutegetsi tumaze kuvuga, ni ngombwa kumenya ko mu mu mitekerereze y’icyo gihe ibintu byose byari iby’umwami. Byose ariko : inka, amasambu, abagore ndetse n’ubuzima bwari muturage, byose byari iby’umwami. Uwifuzaga kugira icyo aronka yagombaga guhakwa ku mwami cyangwa ku byegera bye. N’uwashakaga kwirinda ko yanyagwa ibye ni ko yagombaga kubigenza. Dore ingero 2 zerekana ukuntu ibintu byose byari iby’umwami. Urwambere ni nk’uko umwami Rwabugiri yitwaga Sezisoni. Umunsi umwe yumva izina rya muramu we witwaga Rwabugiri riramushimishije, ararimwaka, araryitwarira, undi amwita Rwakageyo. Urugero rwa 2 ni nk’uko na none Rwabugiri yarongoye abagore 3 bavukana kandi bose abambuye abagabo bari barashatseho,barabyaranye n’abana. Nyuma yaje kubica bose, ataretse na se ubabyara, ni ukuvuga sebukwe witwaga Nzirumbanje abahora ko bari baragize uruhare mu rupfu rw’umugabekazi Murorunkwere, nyina wa Rwabugiri.

Nyiramibambwe-Nyirayuhi KANJOGERA !

Abari mu nzego z’ubutegetsi gakondo bari bashinzwe kuvana mu baturage ibiribwa bikomoka ku buhinzi no ku bworozi bigomba kugemurwa ibwami. Abo mu rwego rwo hasi babikusanyaga bitwaga Abamotsi. Umumotsi yabaga ashinzwe ingo ziri hagati ya 10 na 15. Yagereranywa na ba Nyumbakumi b’ubu. Umumotsi yagombaga gukusanya byinshi, agakuraho ibimutunga n’umuryango we, hagasaguka ibyo yohereza ku mutware w’Igikingi. Umutware w’Igikingi nawe yakuragaho ibimutunga n’abe bose, hagasaguka ibijya ku mutware w’Igiti. Umutware w’Igiti agakuraho ibimutunga, hagasigara n’ibyo yohereza ibwami.


C. Akababaro k’abaturage


Tuzirikane ukuntu bariya batware n’abamotsi banganaga (umubare munini wabo), tuzirikane ko benshi muri bo bari bafite abagore benshi, tuzirikane ko abagira icyo bapfana n’umutware nabo bagombaga gutungwa na rubanda, hanyuma twibaze ukuntu umuturage yari yaragowe. Ntacyo yasigaranaga. Ni yo mpamvu abamotsi bagiraga akamenyero kabi kitwaga “gutora”. Ni ukuvuga kuzenguruka mu rutoki rw’umuturage ruri kwana, agashyira ikimenyetso ku nsina zizera ibitoki byiza kandi binini kurusha ibindi, akavuga ati “iki gitoki nikimara gukomera, kizaba icy’umutware”. Icyo gihe nta mihanda yabagaho. Ibyo byose abaturage babijyanaga ibutware n’ibwami babyikoreye ku mutwe, wabigezayo kandi ntihagire uguhemba cyangwa ngo agushime. Dore amakoro n’andi mahooro umuturage yacibwaga :


1.Ikoro ry’ingabo cyangwa ry’umuheto : Ni ikoro buri muryango mugari (inzu, igisekuru) w’Abahutu watanga ku mpamvu y’uko Abahutu batsinzwe, nta kindi.


2.Ikoro ry’ubutaka : Ni ubukode bw’ubutaka. Kubera ko ubutaka ari ubw’umwami, ufite akarima ahinga wese  yagombaga kugakodesha.


3.Ikoro ry’ibihunikwa : Ni ikoro ryavanwaga ku myaka ishobora kumara igihe ihunitse.


4.Umusesekara. Ni ikoro ryabaga rigizwe n’ipfukire (hagati y’ibiro 8 na 15 by’amashaza cyangwa by’ibishyimbo) n’urutete (ibiro 15 by’amasaka).


5.Inyambike. Ni kimwe na bya bindi twabonye mu kanya byo gutora, uretse ko iyo bamaraga guca igitoki cyari cyaratoranijwe, baheragako bambika (batora) ikindi nacyo kizaba icy’umutware.


6.Umusogongero :Ni uruhare abatware bavanaga ku ikoro rigenewe umwami.


7.Uburetwa : Ni imirimo Abahutu bakoreraga abatware kandi ntibayihemberwe. Buri muryango (urugo –famille-) rwagomba kugira umuntu rwohereza gukora iyo mirimo. Aha ni ho havuye wa mugani ngoIbyaye amamasa yicungura amarago”. Amarago ni ubwoko bw’imyambi aborozi bakoreshaga bareza inka kugirango babone ikiremve. Umugabo wabaga yarabyaye abahungu yashoboraga kujya abohereza umwe umwe gukora ubwo buretwa, nawe akabona akanya ko kuruhuka. Icyumweru cya gihanga cyari kigizwe n’iminsi 5. Itatu muri yo yagombaga guharirwa iyo mirimo. Dore urutonde rw’iyo mirimo:

 

8.Kubaka inkike : Kubaka no kwita ku ngo zikikije amazu y’umutware kandi ibiti, imigozi, urubingo n’amahunda yo kubikora akaba ari wowe ubijyana.


9.Guhingira umutware cyangwa se umwe mu bo bagira icyo bapfana.


10.Kurarira kandi inkwi urara ucanye uraririye akaba ari wowe uzishakira. Abararirizi babaga buri gihe ari babiri babiri. Aragowe uwo umutware yasangaga yafashwe n’agatotsi. Yaramukubitaga, kenshi akamumugaza. Hari ubwo wararaga udasinziriye gutyo, bwacya bakakohereza kwirirwa uhinga, cyangwa se mbere yo gutaha ukabanza ukajya kuvoma amazi umutware, abagore n’abana be baza gukoresha mu guteka, kwiyuhagira, gusukura inzu n’ibindi bikoresho. Haba n’ubwo wabaga wiriwe uhinga, ku mugoroba bakakubwira ngo urare izamu. Kurarira ni bumwe mu buretwa abantu bangaga kurusha ubundi.


11.Guheka mu ngombyi umutware, abo mu muryango we n’imizigo yabo iyo babaga bagiye mu rugendo.


12.Gufata igihe. Ni ukujya kuganiriza umutware umubwira ukuntu ari intagereranywa muri byose, ukamushimisha ukamusetsa, ariko utavugira ku busa. Ugomba kuba witwaje inzoga iryoshye n’andi maturo y’ibiribwa kugirango nyokobuja (umugore w’umutware) na we agushime, hanyuma ukomeze kurebwa neza.


13.Guhora witeguye gutumwa ahantu aho ariho hose, igihe icyo ari cyo cyose.


14.Gutabarana n’umutware aramutse agiye ku rugamba.


15.Kumuha inka y’indorano igihe yapfushije umuntu wo mu muryango we,inshumbushanyo iyo hari indwara yiraye mu nka ze ikicamo zimwe,indemano iyo hari umuhungu we ugomba gukwa, igihembo iyo umugore we yabyaye, indabukirano ihabwa umuhungu w’umutware iyo yabaga agizwe umukuru w’umuryango, izimano iyo umutware yabaga yagusuye cyangwa yasuye agace utuyemo.


16.Kwemera umurundo nta guhigima. Igihe umutware ashakiye, yategekaga umworozi ufite inka kuzimwereka zose, agahitamo izo yifuza ko ziba ize akazitwara, cyangwa se ntagire n’imwe ahitamo.


17.“Umukenke ni uw’inka, si uw’isuka”. Iyi mvugo isobanura ko icyazaga mbere, icyahabwaga agaciro ari inzuri, imirima ihingwa ikaza nyuma. Bisobanura ko umutware yashoboraga kwambura abaturage imirima yabo kugirango ayigire inzuri z’inka ze. Yashoboraga no koneshereza abo baturage abizi neza kandi abishaka, akaragira no mu bikorera byabo. Bari babujijwe guhinga ibishanga kugirango inka zijye zibona aho zirisha mu cyi. Yashoboraga kandi kwambura abaturage imirima yabo kugirango ayigire iye gusa n’ubwo atayihindura inzuri. 

 


Ikindi kibabaje cyane ni uko abatware bashoboraga kwica abaturage, ntihabe inkurukizi. Ni muri urwo rwego ingabo zashoboraga kwitoreza kumasha ku bantu bazima ; cyangwa uwatanzwe ngo apfe akigirizwaho nkana. Bamwe mu batesi bati reka turebe uwamukubita inkoni imwe, agaherako ahwera”. Abandi bati reka turebe uburyo twamwigirizaho nkana, tumugaragure, ntahereko apfa, mbere yo kunogoka  abanze ababare igihe kirekire gishoboka cyose”.


Zimwe mu ndangagaciro zagombaga kuranga umuntu wahatswe cyangwa uzi guhakwa ni izi :


*Gukora icyo utegetswe neza, vuba na bwangu.

*Kwicisha bugufi no guhora wigengesereye.

*Kunama imbere y’umutware, ariko ukabangarika amatwi ngo wumve icyo akubwira, kutamureba mu maso, kumushyira mu bwinshi (mwaramutse, murifuza iki ?...), gutegereza ko aguhereza akaboko, kandi ugategereza ko ari we ubanza kugira icyo avuga, hanyuma nawe ukaba wasubiza.


D. Bose ntibari bababaye kimwe


1. Hari n’Abatusti bari batsikamiwe n’imikorere mibi y’inzego z’ubutegetsi gakondo uko tumaze kuzivuga. Ariko bo kubaka inkike, guhinga, kurarira no guheka ntibyabarebaga. Icy’ingenzi basabwaga kwari ugufata igihe. Iyo Abahutu cyangwa Abatwa babaga bahetse umutware, bene abo Batutsi bo babaga batwaye nk’inkono ye y’itabi.


2. Igihe Abazungu badutse mu Rwanda, imikorere y’inzego z’ubutegetsi gakondo nk’uko tumaze kuzibona yari yiganje mu gice cy’u Rwanda gikikije Nyanza ya Butare (Nyabisindu). I Gisaka cyari cyarigaruriwe n’Urwanda mu w’1850 ku ngoma ya Rwogera. Imikorere nk’iyi tumaze kubona yari itarahashinga imizi. Mu turere tw’imisozi miremire twa Gisenyi, Ruhengeri, igice cya Byumba, uburengerazuba bwa Kibuye, mu Bukunzi, mu Busozo,ndetse na Busigi, ibi bintu ntibyahabaga ! Aho hose hari hatuwe ahanini n’Abahutu bari bifitiye abandi Bahutu babategekaga, ntibabigirizeho nkana nk’uko ingoma nyiginya yabikoraga aho yari yarashinze imizi. Nk’uko tuzabibona mu nyandiko zizakurikiraho, ni Abazungu cyane cyane Ababiligi bazakuraho bariya bayobozi b’Abahutu, bakabasimbuza abatware b’Abatutsi, maze mu Rwanda hose bahasakaza imitegekere nk’iyi tumaze gusuma. Ababiligi ariko bakoze n’ibindi byinshi tuzarushaho gusobanukirwa neza ubwo tumaze kumenya uko inzego gakondo z’ubutegetsi zakoraga.


Umwanzuro


Iyi miyoborere ni yo yatumaga mu Rwanda hahora amapfa n’inzara. Imvura yapfaga kubura cyangwa se ikaba nyinshi, umuturage wari usanzwe ari umukene akaba abaye noneho umutindi kuko nta kantu yashoboraga kuba yarazigamye. Mu rugo rugizwe n’umugabo, umugore n’abana, iyo umwe yarwaraga na bwo byari uko. Amakoro, imisoro, uburetwa ntibyagabanukaga ngo ni uko umwe yarwaye. Umuturage nta gaciro, nta burenganzira yagiraga. Akamaro ke kari ako gukora, yashaka agapfa, ariko abategetsi bakiberaho neza. Ubuhake ntaho bwari butaniye n’ubucakara, n’umwami Rudahigwa ubwe yarabyivugiraga. Imitegekere nk’iriya yagumyeho kugeza mu w’1959. 

 

Mu guhimbaza isabukuru y’imyaka 50 Urwanda rumaze rwigenga, birakwiye rwose kandi biratunganye kwibukana urukundo, urukumbuzi n’icyubahiro cyinshi Abarwanashyaka basezereye ingoma ya gihake na gikolonize.


Padiri F. Rudakemwa

 

 

 

Iyumvire Simon Bikindi ati :

 

Twasezereye ingoma ya Cyami,

Gihake na Gikolonize birajyana,

Tubona Demokarasi itwizihiye,

Muze twishimire UBWIGENGE.

 

 

 

 

Commenter cet article

Rukataza 19/06/2012 08:55


Ni ngombwa ko amateka y'u Rwanda akomeza kwandikwa akanasobanurwa uko yakabaye mu rwego rwo kurwanya ingoma y'igiyugu yamaze kuyasiba ikaba irimo guhimbahimba ayayo yishakiye ngo abe ariyo
yigishwa abana bacu.