INKOMOKO Y’IGIHUGU CY’U RWANDA N’ABANYARWANDA (igice cya kabiri)

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umwaduko w'abazungu mu Rwanda, aba ni abadage bambuka Akagera

umwaduko w'abazungu mu Rwanda, aba ni abadage bambuka Akagera

Politiki mbi ituma rubanda irimbuka, ndetse n’ibintu bizizwe n'ibidukikije bikayongobera!
 
Ngo utaraganiriye na se ntamenya icyo sekuru yavuze, kutigisha abana isomo ry’amateka, n’ubwo yaba aducira urubanza, ni ugusenya igihugu! Umuhanzi Sankara yagize ati: “urwango wimika ntacyo rumaze, kuvangura abana bibiba inzika, ingaruka zabyo n’andi mahano, nyabusa ibuka ko wabyaye, ugirire impuhwe urubyaro rwawe”. Hari umunyarwanda wambwiye ati: “n’umuntu wonesherejwe yageze aho aramenyera”. Iyo mvugo yaturutse ku mututsi warutashye mu Rwanda nyuma y’intambara yo muri 1994, yahoraga yahura inka ze mu myaka y’umuhutu utuye iyo muri za Rukira ya Gisaka/Kibungo; rimwe umuhutu abaza wa mututsi ati: “wa mugabo we, kuki unyoneshereza?” Umututsi mu kumusubiza yagize ati: “Uzamenyera!”. Ni muri ubwo buryo urutonde rw’’imigani y’ikinyarwanda rwakomeje kwiyongera! Iyo ngeso yo koneshereza abantu imyaka iri mu bintu byakunze gutera ibyorezo by’inzara mu Rwanda. Twashatse kumenya inzara zayogoje igihugu cyacu n’icyaziteye.
 
Mbere yo kubagezaho ibyerekeye inzara zayogoje Urwanda, ni byiza kureba igihe Abazungu bagereye mu Rwanda: Urwanda ntirwigeze rushaka ko abazungu barwinjiramo;  umuzungu witwa John Rowlands dit Henry Morton Stanley, akaba ari Umwongereza wavutse kuya 28 Mutarama 1841 akitaba Imana kuya 10 Gicurasi 1904, yageze ku mupaka w’Urwanda ku wa 11 Werurwe 1876 aturutse i Karagwe; yagerageje kwinjira mu Mubari, ageze ku kiyaga cy’Ihema, asubira inyuma yugarijwe n’amacumu n’imyambi ifite uburozi by’Abanyarwanda b’Abanyamubari. Nyirabiyoro yari yarahanuye umwaduko w’abazungu muri aya magambo: “Ko mbona se ibigenzi bifite uruhu rutukura nk’urw’impinja bizaza bitereye amasuka ku ntugu, azabikizwa n’iki? Ese ko mbona ikinyamaswa gihetse ikindi giturutse mu Mubali wa Kabeja azagikizwa n’iki?” (cfr: Mgr Alexis Kagame).
 
Umuzungu wa mbere winjiye mu Rwanda ni umudage wari ufite ipeti rya liyetena witwa Von Götzen (wavutse kuya 12/05/1860 - yitaba Imana kuya 01/12/1910) n’abari bamuherekeje, icyo gihe bambutse uruzi rw’ Akagera ku italiki ya 2 Gicurasi 1894, babanje kuruhukira i Sakara ya Gihunya mu Gisaka. Nyuma kuva ku wa 4 kugeza ku wa 7 Gicurasi, bacumbika mu mahema yabo i Rukira. Bageze i Rwamagana ku 12 Gicurasi 1894, bahura n’igikomangoma Sharangabo umuhungu wa Rwabugiri. Von Götzen yasabye Sharangabo ku mugeza k’umwami Rwabugiri. Sharangabo yarabyemeye. Bakoze urugendo rw’iminsi 16 babona kugera i Kageyo mu Cyingogo ya Gisenyi, mu bigabiro by’Umwami.
 
Imibanire y’Abadage n’Umwami yari ishingiye ku mbaraga za gisilikare abadage barushaga umwami, Von Götzen mbere yo guhura na Rwabugiri yabanje kurasa amasasu mu kirere akoresheje imbunda 600 zo mu bwoko bwa Mauser kugira ngo atere ubwoba umwami n’ingabo ze. Kubera iryo terabwoba ryatumye ibwami bemera kumwakira ariko baramucenga banga ko abonana n’umwami Rwabugiri kuko muri icyo gihe abanyarwanda babangaga ko abazungu bagera imbere y’umwami bakamuteza abazimu b’iwabo bashoboraga kumugirira nabi. Von Götzen yakiriwe n’undi muntu w’umutoni w’ibwami mu izina rya Rwabugiri nk’ukuko byanditse mu nyandiko z’igitabo cy’amateka cya Mgr Alexis Kagame. Nk’uko Von Götzen yabigenje n’undi mudage wese wasuraga ibwami yashyiraga imbere iterabwoba rya gisirikare rigamije guhungeta Umwami n’ibyegera bye. Rwabugiri na Musinga bumvise neza ubwo butumwa bw’abazungu bituma bahora bigegengesera ku badage, n’abadage baha abo bami rugari mu buyobozi bwabo.
 
Dore uko byagenze kugirango Abanyarwanda bareke Abazungu binjjire mu Rwanda: Nyuma y’umuzungu Stanley washubijwe inyuma n’Abanyamubari ntashobore kwinjira mu Rwanda, hakurikiyeho Docteur Oscar Baumann wavutse ku italiki ya 25/06/1864 yitaba Imana ku italiki ya  12 ukwakira 1899; akaba ari uwo mu mujyi wa Vienne muri Autriche. Baumann yakoze ingendo nyinshi muri Afurika y’iburasirazuba, yageze no mu majyepfo y’Urwanda avuye mu Burundi: Yinjiye mu Rwanda kuva 11 kugeza 15 Nzeri 1892. Baumann yaciye i Bukako mu Burundi, yambuka Akanyaru aciye i Muhozi, ubwo agera mu Rwanda mu karere k’Indara, yaraye i Lyamugabo, yakomeje ajya  i Mushongi aciye i Murama abantu benshi bakaza kumwitegereza; yari kumwe n’abantu batwaye imizigo afite n’abasirikari imbere n’inyuma, yagenderaga ku ndogobe.
 
Umuntu wabatwazaga imizigo bamuhaga imyenda. Bambutse umugezi w’Akabogobogo bagera i Gikore. Bageze mu i Janja hafi y’i Rusagara, abarwanyi b’Abasasa n’Abarangamyambi bafatanyije n’Intera-macumu n’Amariza bajya kubategera mu Twicarabami hafi ya  Nyaruteja. Abo barwanyi bagabye igitero ku basirikari bari imbere babatera urufaya rw’amacumu n’imyambi. Baumann avuga ko yatewe n’abantu bagera kuri 30 bo mu bwoko bw’Abatutsi, bashatse kumugota ngo atava mu Rwanda agataha i Burundi umwami Rwabugiri atabyemeye. Habaye akavuyo abari batwaye ibintu batangira kwiruka. Abasikari bari inyuma baza biruka bagiye gutabara bagenzi babo, ba barwanyi b’Abanyarwanda bababonye nabo bariruka, bagenda bahamagara nk’uhamagara imbwa ngo “fata, fata”.
 
Abanyarwanda babonye abasirikari bakomeje kubirukaho cyane, abantu babagira inama ngo nibaryame hasi ngo imbunda ntishobora kurasa umuntu uryamye. Abasirikari babonye Abanyarwanda baryamye, barabarasa bamwe mu mbamvu abandi ku mabuno (fesses). Abacitse kwicumu barirutse kibuno mpamaguru bahungira kure. Nyuma Baumann yambukiye ku Kanyaru ahitwa Gisenyi, asubira i Burundi aho yakiriwe neza bamuririmbira bamubwira ngo “Gansa Mwami Mwesi” aribyo bivuga ngo “Ganza mwami Mwezi”. Ibi byanditse mu gitabo kirimo raporo Oscar Baumann yiyandikiye ubwe uko yageze mu Rwanda  ndetse hiyongereyeho n’ubuhamya bw’umusaza witwa Gahiza waganiriye na Mgr Alexis Kagame mu mwaka w’1950-1951. Abantu benshi bari bazi amabanga y’ibwami, bemeza ko umwami yari yarahaye amabwiriza akomeye ingabo ze zo ku nkiko (ku mipâka) kurwanya bikomeye abazungu bashakaga kwinjira mu Rwanda , kugira ngo ubuhanuzi bwa Nyirabiyoro budasohora!
 
Urwanda nicyo gihugu cya nyuma cyo muri Afurika y’iburasirazuba Abazungu bagezemo; nyuma baje gukurikirwa n’Abarabu  n’Abahindi. Mbere y’aho, Abararabu byari byarabananiye kwinjira mu Rwanda. Ukuza kwa mbere kw’Abazungu kwatumye Abanyarwanda bagwa mu gahinda n’ubwoba bwinshi bitewe n’uko bari bacyibuka neza umuvumo wa Nyirabiyoro yabwiye umwami Ndabarasa aho yagize ati: “Ni muzabona abagabo b’uruhu rwera bageze ku butaka bw’u Rwanda, muzamenye ko umuvumo ukurikiranye Abanyarwanda uzaba uri hafi gusohora. Ati” ariko mumenye mbere y’igihe ko kera cyane mu bihe bizaza, uwo muvumo ugeze mu bihe byo kurangira, Urwanda ruzakizwa na Rugiri (Rugiri bivuga :umuyobozi w’igihugu utowe n’Imana ubwayo), uzava mu buhungiro aje munda y’inyoni, akazashyira burundu Urwanda kumurongo (ubu buhanuzi bwa Nyirabiyoro bwanditse mu gitabo cy’amateka cya Mgr Alexis Kagame).
  
Nyuma y’aho abazungu bagereye mu Rwanda, hatangiye ibyorezo bikomeye by’inzara mubanyarwanda; mbere y’uko abazungu bagera mu Rwanda habaye icyorezo kimwe gusa cy’inzara, izindi nzara zose zaje nyuma y’umwaduko w’abazungu mu Rwanda. Dore bimwe mu byorezo bikomeye by’inzara zayogoje u Rwanda:
 
Mbere y’umwaduko w’Abazungu :
 
Inzara yitwa Rukungugu: ni izina ry’inzara yabayeho ku ngoma ya Yuhi IV Gahindiro (1746-1811), akaba umuhungu w’umwami Ndabarasa yavumwe na Nyirabiyoro. Umwami Yuhi IV Gahindiro  akaba yari se wa Mutara II Rwogera ariwe ubyara Kigeri IV Rwabugiri watanze (kwitabye Imana), nyuma y’urupfu rwe hakaduka intambara yo ku Rucunshu yahitanye abantu batagira ingano, cyane cyane barimo aboyobozi b’icyo gihe bo mu bwoko bw’abanyiginya, bicwaga n’abega!
 
Nyuma y’umwaduko w’abazungu: mu gihe Abadage
 
Inzara ya Ruyaga (1897-1903) ni izina ry’inzara yatewe n’inzige zakwiye mu gihugu cyose mu mezi ya Kamena na Nyakanga 1897. Iyo nzara yagaritse ingogo.
 
Inzara ya Rwakabaga cyangwa  Kimwaramwara (1906-1908): Iyo nzara yatewe n’uruzuba rwinshi rwibasiye uturere tw’amajyaruguru y’igihugu kimwe n’uturere two hagati n’iburasirazuba bw’u Rwanda.
 
Nyuma y’umwaduko w’abazungu : mu gihe Ababirigi
 
Inzara ya Rumanura cyangwa Rumanurimbaba (1916-1918): Mu w’1916 Ababirigi bamenesheje Abadage mu Rwanda, barabasimbura, niho havuye ijambo “Umuzungu-Abazungu” lituruka ku nshinga “kuzungura”. Iyi nzara yatewe n’intambara ya mbere y’isi yose yashegeshe n’u Rwanda, dore uko byagenze:
 
Uko Intambara y’Isi yose yageze mu Rwanda:  
 
Mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi yose, Abongereza bashyize ingufu mu kugenzura inyanja y’Abahindi (océan Indien) kugira ngo Abadage batabona ibikoresho; Abadage nabo bashyira ingufu mu kugenzura ibiyaga bya Tanganyika, Kivu, na Victoria kugirango hatazagira umwanzi w’Umuburigi cyangwa Umwongereza uca muri ibyo biyaga akabatera. Muri kanama 1914, abasirikari b’Abadage bari mu Rwanda bari aba officiers 24 n’aba sous-officiers 24 bayobowe na Kapiteni Wintgens. Bagombaga kwunganirwa n’abasoda b’Abadage basanzwe barwanira mu mazi ariko babura aho banyura kubera Abongereza bari barangije kugota ibivuko by’Abadage (ports allemands) ku nyanja y’Abahindi.
 
Mu Rwanda: Intore (jeunes guerriers) z’ibwami arizo Indengabaganizi n’Iziruguru zarateguwe zihurizwa mu mutwe wiswe Indugaruga wari ugizwe n’abasirikari 150. Hiyongereyeho undi mutwe wiswe ASKARIS mu kidage (bivuga volontaires, abakorerabushake). ASKARIS nayo yari igizwe n’abasirikari 2500 barwanishaga amacumu n’imyambi. Indugaruga zahawe imyitozo ya gisirikare igezweho zaherewe mu ishuri ry’abana b’abatware ryari i Nyanza. Bityo bahise bajya ku rugamba baherekejwe n’umutwe Askaris kugirango barwanye abasirikare b’Ababirigi n’Abakongomani ba “Force Publique”. Hagati y’ababiligi n’abadage rwambikanye bwa mbere ku italiki ya 24 Nzeri 1914 ubwo Indugaruga, Askaris n’Abadage  bayobowe na Kapiteni Wintgens bateye muri Kongo bigarurira ikirwa cy’Ijwi, bahafatira aba officiers 2 b’Ababiligi n’abasilikari 50 b’Abakongomani barindaga ikirwa cy’Ijwi.
 
Ingabo z’basirikare b’Ababirigi n’Abakongomani ba “Force Publique”zahise zihagoboka vuba na bwangu, byabanje kuzigora kugirango bahirukane Abadage, kuko abandi basilikare b’abadage bari barahagurutse i Bujumbura, bari bamaze gufata ikiyaga cya Tanganyika. Ku buryo Ababirigi batashoboraga gutwara ibikoresho banyuze inzira y’amazi. Byabaye ngombwa ko batwara ibikoresho byose ku mugongo banyuze inzira y’ubutaka. Ababirigi bagabye ibitero ku Badage ku wa 4 na 27 ukwakira 1914 ku Gisenyi no mu Ruhengeri, Ababirigi baratsindwa. Musinga abonye ko Abadage bigaruriye Ijwi, ahita ashimangira umubano we n’Abadage kuko yumvaga ko abonye uburyo bamufasha kwisubiza ubutaka bwo muri Kivu yari yaratakaje mu nama y’i Berlin.
 
Ababirigi bari bafite ingabo nyinshi muri Katanga batashoboraga kugabanya kuko Abadage bahashakaga cyane ubwo bari bamaze kwinjira muri Rhodésie y’amajyaruguru y’iburasirazuba (Zambiya y’ubu),  icyo gihe ababirigi babasanzeyo babisabwe n’Abongereza. Mu mwaka w’i 1915 intambara yakwiye mu karere hose. Abongereza bashoboye kwohereza ibikoresho byinshi muri Rhodésiya, bituma Colonel Charles Tombeur wayoboraga ingabo z’Ababirigi muri Katanga na Rhodésie agabanya ingabo ze, abona izo yohereza kujya gutera inkunga bagenzi babo bari muri Kivu.
 
Abongereza basabye Lieutenant-Colonel Henry wayoboraga ingabo z’Ababirigi muri Kivu ngo abanze ajye ku rwana i Masaka, ahita abyanga agira ati: “ni ukubanza gufata Urwanda, tukajya twabona uko dukomeza intambara tujya i Mwanza, Tabora na Morogoro. Bitabaye ibyo, tugiye i Masaka, Abadage batwinjirana muri Kongo”. Ababirigi bakurikije gahunda (plan) ya Henry, banahereye ku iperereza ryimbitse bari barakoze; bagabye ibitero bya karahabutaka byatangiye ku wa 21 Mata 1916 bihereye mu kiyaga cya Kivu, bakubita incuro Abadage, Askaris n’Indugaruga amaguru bayabangira ingata basubira iyo bateye baturuka, ingabo z’Ababirigi na Kongo zirabinjirana zibasanga mu Rwanda. Ababirigi barwanye bigabuyemo ibice bitatu (3 colonnes distinctes):
 
1°Igice cya mbere cyari cyiyobowe na Molitor cyahise gifata inshingano (objectif) yo kujya i Kigali giturutse ku Gisenyi iteganye na Goma mu majyaruguru y’ikiyaga cya Kivu..
2°Igice cya kabiri cyari kiyobowe na Olsen, cyahagurukiye mu majyepfo y’aho Molitor yari yafashe ibirindiro, gifata inzira igana i Nyanza kugirango bagote  Umwami Musinga wafashaga Abadage.
3°Igice cya gatatu cyari kiyobowe na Rouling cyahagurukiye mu majyaruguru y’iburasirazuba (Nord-Ouest) nacyo kigana i Nyanza.
 
Impamvu ibyo bice byombi byashakaga kugota i Bwami, bari bagamije gutegeka umwami Musinga gufatanya n’Abirigi akabaha abikorezi b’Abanyarwanda bo gutwara imizigo y’abasilikare bari kurugamba, kuko Ababirigi bakekaga ko Abakongomani bikoreraga imizigo y’abasilikare batazemera gukomeza ngo barenge i Nyanza nihamara gufatwa. Babonaga ko byanze bikunze bazageraho bakabacika niba batanishwe vuba n’imihindukire y’ikirere n’imirire mishya y’akarere bari bagezemo gatandukanye n’iyo bavuye iyo iheru mu mashyamba ya Kongo. Mu mpapuro z’ibanga twashoboye kubona, zanditswe zigenewe Ministre w’Ububurigi wa Colonies, umusirikari yagize ati: Akamenyero katweretse ko abirabura bavuye mu mu mashyamba manini yo hafi ya Equateur, bagomba gufata igihe kirekire kugirango bamenyere akarere ko mu burasirasuba bwa Afurika kandi ko bagira ikibazo cyo kumenyera ibiryo byaho”. Ubwo Ministre yahise abemerera bafata umwanzuro muri Mata 1916 wo gufata cyane kurushaho (de préférence) abikorezi b’Abanyarwanda.
 
Intamabara rero yarakomeje, ikipe ya Olsen yafashe inzira, ikina Abadage ica inyuma y’imitamenwa icumi yari ku murongo ( ligne fortifiée de dix redoutes ) hafi ya Goma irabinjirana ijya mu Rwanda. Naho Molitor yaciye hafi y’ibirunga nawe yinjira mu Rwanda. Nkuko Ababirigi babyiyandikira, kugenda Urwanda ntabwo byari ukwitemberera. Ababiligi babivuga muri aya magambo:”nubwo kurwana n’Abadage nta bwoba byari biduteye na gato, twari dufite ikibazo cyo kutamenya amayira yo mu Rwanda, nta n’itumanaho twari dufite hagakubitaho n’imisozi ihanamye”. Ngo Imana itera amapfa itera n’aho bahahira, ababiligi babonye inkunga ikomeye y’abapadiri bera b’Abafaransa bahise basaba abatware bo mu turere bari bagezemo, guhita bayoboka. Nyuma muri mata 1916, habaye igitero simusiga cya batayo y’ingabo z’abasirikare b’Ababirigi n’Abakongomani ba “Force Publique”  ku mugi wa Kigali zirawufata. Nyuma Abadage babifashijwemo nuko ikipe ya Olsen yagize ikibazo gikomeye cyo kwambuka Nyabarongo igatinda kugera i Kigali, byatumye Abadage bayobowe na Kapiteni Wintgens batagotwa (encerclé) bityo bashobora kuhikura bahunga inkubagahu, umugi wa Kigali barawuta ndetse bava no mu Rwanda bariruka baruhukira i Dar-es-Salaam.
 
Abadage baba bagiye nka nyombere gutyo. Iyo nkuru mbi itaha i Bwami, ni uko Musinga ahita asesa vuba na bwangu umutwe wa Askaris. Ababirigi bamaze gufata Nyanza bahise bakomeza inzira igana i Bujumbura. Babisabwe n’Abongereza, bahise bagaba ibitero ku mugi wa Tabora bahagurukiye mu majyepfo y’ikiyaga cya Tanganyika. Bagaba n’ibindi bitero mu Bugande bahagurukiye mu mugi wa Mwanza. Umugi wa Tabora wafashwe nyuma y’iminsi icumi y’imirwano, Abadage ubwo baba batsinzwe ruhenu. Intambara ikirangira mu Rwanda, ababiligi bararubenze (kudashishikazwa), bavuze ko rudateye amabengeza, ntabwo kandi bari bashishikajwe no gukomeza gukorana n’Abongereza kuko ngo babonaga ko bafite ubwirasi nyamara bataragize ubushobozi buhagije bwo kurwanira muri kariya karere.
 
Ku byerekeye Urwanda, umwe mu migambi Ingabo z’Ababirigi n’Abakongomani bari bafite wari uwo kwigarurira Abatware bo mu Rwanda n’ibisonga byabo babereka ingufu za gisirikare zabo. Mu mpapuro z’ibanga zanditswe na Molitor twashoboye kubona aho yagize ati” Nari mfite ikibazo cy’ubwoko bw’Abatutsi (watuzi - we niko yabyanditse) bwari buzwiho kumenya kurwana cyane, twagombaga kubacecekesha tujagajaga igihugu cyabo birambuye. Ibimenyetso byo kuyobokwa niboneye aho naciye hose, byanyeretse ko umugambi wanjye wabonye umusaruro ukwiye. Abaturage bo bari bishwe n’inyota yo kudufasha no kubona ingoma zihindura imirishyo. Akomeza agira ati:”ingoyi z’amoko anyuranye niboneye mu bigo bya gisiririkari  twafashe binyereka impamvu zibyo byishimo (les chaînes, menottes et entraves trouvées dans un dépôt de la caserne prouvent éloquemment pourquoi les indigènes préfèrent l’autorité du Bula-Matari)”.
 
Umwami Musinga yahise yandikira Ababiligi ibaruwa ibagaragariza ko abayobotse kugira ngo yihakirwe badahita bamukuraho. Ababirigi n’Abakongomani babanje kwitwara nk’ingabo zatsinze urugamba koko, urugero babagaga inka ntibayirye yose kugira ngo bababaze Abatware. Ariko bahise bareka uwo muco mubi. Ahubwo batangira gahunda yo gushaka abantu bo kwikorera imizigo. Abatware babibafashijemo mu gushaka abo bantu ariko bababwira ko nta mututsi bakoraho,nyamara ko babahaye rugari ku Bahutu. Mu zindi nyandiko zibanga twabonye zanditswe n’umusirikare witwa Major Stevens ku ya 6 Ugushyingo 1916 yagize ati:”tugomba kwitwara by’intangarugero muri iki gihugu, kugira ngo intsinzi yacu hatagira ikiyirogoya, ni yo mpamvu ibikorwa bya buri musirikari bigomba gukurikiranwa aho yaba ari hose,...”.
 
Intambara irangiye mu Rwanda, ntabwo byarangije ihagarara ry’imirimo y’ubwikorezi! Mu w’1917, Major De Clerck abisabwe n’Abongereza yemeye kwohereza abikorezi ibihumbi 20 (20 000) b’abanyarwanda ngo bajye i Kigoma. Nkuko raporo ikomeza ibivuga, abo bikorezi b’abanyarwanda boherejwe hagarutse mbarwa, bibiri bya gatatu byabo byarapfuye, kuko bari bamenyereye gutura mu misozi, bageze iyo iheru  mu bibaya bishyushye bya Tanganyika, bafatwa n’ibirwara by’amoko yose. Intambara ya mbere y’isi yose yishe abanyarwanda batagira ingano. Abatarishwe n’intambara bahitanywe ku bwinhsi  n’inzara ya Rumanura  yahise iyogoza Urwanda.
 
Inzara ya Rumanura yatewe n’uko n’ubusanzwe ubuhake ntaho bwari butaniye n’ubucakara kuko abaturage bahingiraga umwami n’abandi batware ntibabone igihe cyo kwikorera; iyo nzara kandi yanatewe n’intambara y’isi. Ingabo z’Abadage zari zikeneye ibiribwa, n’ingabo z’Ababiligi zari zibikeneye. Hagombaga kandi abantu bo kubyikorera no kwikorera ibikoresho by’intambara by’izo ngabo zose. Hanyuma ingabo z’Abadage aho zanyuraga, zasigaga zangije ibintu byose harimo n’ibihingwa kugirango ingabo z’Ababiligi nizihagera zizabure ibizitunga.
Ababiligi bamaze gutsinda, kugirango babashe kugoboka Abanyarwanda bari bamerewe nabi n’inzara no kugirango bumve bacigatiye Urwanda mu biganza byabo (contrôle du territoire), barugabanijemo ibice bibiri : icy’iburasirazuba n’icy’iburengerazuba. Umwami Musinga yaketse ko igice cy’iburasirazuba kimucitse, agasigara ari umwami w’igice cy’iburengerazuba gusa. Ni bwo rero acuze umugambi wo kuroga umubiligi wacungaga igice cy’iburasirazuba na benshi mubari bamwungirije, ibyo bikaba bigaragaza ko ingeso y’uburozi mu butegetsi bw’abanyarwanda atari iy’ubu! Yibwiraga ko abo bapfuye, ari bwo yakongera kuba umwami w’Urwanda rwose. Nyamara umwe mu bo bari bafatanije gucura uwo mugambi mubisha, bagombaga no gufatanya kuwushyira mu bikorwa yana niwe guhisha ibanga, amuvamo!
 
Ku wa 25/03/1917 ubugenzacyaha bw’Ababiligi mu Rwanda bwasabye ko Musinga afatwa, agafungwa, akazashyikirizwa ubucamanza. Major Declerck wari ukuriye ubutegetsi bwa gisirikari bw’Ababiligi mu Rwanda arabyangira. Yatinyaga ko bya rebeka nabi, ntiyifuzaga ko hagira abavuga ngo “ iby’Ababiligi mu Rwanda bitangiye nabi ”. Ni na cyo cyatumye Ababiligi barekera Musinga ku ntebe ya cyami mu w’1916 kandi batari bayobewe ko we rwose yishakiraga Abadage, kandi n’ingabo ze zitwaga “Indugaruga” zikaba zari zarafashije umwanzi(abadage) mu ntambara.
 
Guha Abanyarwanda imfashanyo z’ibiribwa zitanzwe n’ababiligi kugirango bahonoke inzara ya Rumanura byari byiza, ariko ntibyari bihagije. Ababirigi batekereje no ku bindi bakora kugirango inzara itazongera gutera mu Rwanda. Bagishije Musinga inama ngo ababwire igitera inzara mu Rwanda, arabawira ngo “inzara iterwa n’uko Abahutu ari abanebwe”, asaba Ababirigi ko bajya babakoresha nk’abakoresha amapunda cyangwa imashini. Kubera ko Ababiligi bo babonaga neza icyatumaga amapfa n’inzara bihoraho mu Rwanda, bategetse ko ubuso bw’imirima yagenewe ubuhinzi bwakwiyongera, ubw’iyagenewe inzuri bukagabanuka. Bategetse kandi ko n’ibishanga bihingwa aho kugumiraho ngo inka z’abatware zizabone aho zirisha mu gihe k’icyi. Mu mwaka w’1917 nanone Major Declerck yaciye iteka atangaza ibyemezo bikurikira :
 
1°.Ko umututsi uzongera kwambura Umuhutu imyaka ye, azajya ayimusubiza yikubye incuro ebyiri.
2°. Ko umututsi uzongera kuragira inka ze mu myaka y’Umuhutu azajya amuriha incuro 2 ibyo izo nka zizaba zangije.
3° Ko abatware babujijwe gukoresha Abahutu uburetwa buruta ubuteganijwe n’amategeko.
 
Birumvikana ko ibyemezo nk’ibi byari bigamije kugabanya akarengane kagirirwaga rubanda no gukumira amapfa n’inzara, ariko ibyo byemezo bikaba bitarashimishije umwami Musinga n’ibyegera bye. Nta mibare izwi neza y’abantu bahitanywe na Rumanura, ariko umupadiri wera witwa Oomen  wagerageje kubarura mu karere ka Nyundo yabonye abantu 20 000 bapfuye mu gihe hari hatuwe n’abantu bagera kuri 100 000. Ngo iyo mibare iranarenga cyane kuko Ubugoyi bwigirijweho nkana n’iyo nzara.
 
 
Inzara ya Gakwege cyangwa Ntunyanjweho yabaye hagati y’imyaka y’i 1924 n’i 1926. Yatewe n’uruzuba rwayogoje uturere two hagati mu gihugu ndetse n’amajyepfo y’uburasirazuba.
 
Inzara ya Rwakayihura yatangiye mu mwaka w’i 1928 igeza mu w’i 1930, yatewe n’uruzuba rwinshi mu bice bimwe by’igihugu nk’i Rwaza, mu Bugoyi, i Kabgayi, mu Buganza no mu Gisaka. Abantu barahababariye cyane kuko n’ibyorezo by’indwara nk’amacinya, marariya na grippes ziyongereyeho zirabahuhura. Hapfuye abantu bagera kuri 35 000 abandi 70 000 bahunga igihugu bajya mu Buganda. Kiriziya gatorika ibibonye gutyo yahise ishishikariza abantu guhinga imyumbati, ibijumba n’ibirayi. Inahamagarira abaturage guhinga amashyamba.  
 
Inzara ya Ruzagayura (qui assèche le corps humain): iyo nzara yabaye mu gihugu cyose mu mwaka w’i 1943 kugeza mu mwaka w’i 1944. Yari ifite amazina menshi: iburengerazuba bayitaga Rujukundi, Rwanyirarushenyi, Rwakinyebuye, na Rwakabetezi. Mu majyaruguru bayitaga Rudakangwimishanana, cyagwa Rugaragazabadakekwa cyangwa Nyirahuku. Hagati mu gihugu no mu majayaruguru y’iburasirazuba bayitaga: Matemane. Ku Kibuye na Gisenyi bayitaga Gahoro. Abantu bakwiye igihugu cyose bashaka ibyo kurya, bitewe n’ukuntu bari barabaye amagufa, niho havuye izina “ingarisi”
 
Inzara ya Ruzagayura yatewe n’urusobekerane rw’ibibazo birimo imihindagurikire y’ibihe n’ikirere birimo uruzuba, indwara z’ibihingwa (facteurs naturels) n’imyitwarire y’abantu (facteurs humains) aribyo, kujyana abantu gufasha abasirikare urugamba rw’intambara ya kabiri y’isi yose. Dore icyo Abanyarwanda basabwaga (effort de guerre): « Travailler beaucoup plus, pour fournir aux Alliés les produits dont les armées de la libération ont un absolu  besoin. » Gukora cyane kurushaho kugira ngo haboneke ibiribwa n’ibintu bigomba gufasha ingabo z’ibihugu byiyunze (alliés) byarwanaga intambara ya kabiri y’isi yose.
 
Mu gihe cya Repubulika  iyobowe na Geregori Kayibanda: watowe n’abaturage
Nta nzara yongeye kuyogoza igihugu.
 
Mu gihe cya Repubulika  iyobowe na Yuvenari Habyarimana: wishyizeho ku ngufu za gisirikari : Nta nzara yongeye kuyogoza igihugu.
 
Mu gihe cya Repubulika iyobowe na Paul Kagame: wishyizeho ku ngfu za gisirikari.
 
Hateye Inzara yitwa Nyobozi ariyo ya FDLR n’iya M23: Iyo nzara yatangiye mu gihe cy’abacengezi irushaho gukara igihe intambara ya M23 yari imaze kuvuka muri Kongo. (Les mêmes causes ont engendrés les mêmes effets): mu magambo make Umuyobozi yakwiriye igihugu afata ibyemezo binyuranye bibangamiye abahinzi, abasaba gutema amashyamba n’indi myaka yose ishobora kurenga urugero rw’imibyuko (uburebure buringaniye n’ivi) ngo kugira ngo abasirikari bajye bashobora kubona umwanzi aho ari hose ngo FDLR itazabinjirana. Umuyobozi arongera azenguruka ategeka abaturage guhinga ibyo we abategetse uko abyumva akanabategeka aho babigurisha bagasigarira aho kandi ari amayeri yo kugira ngo abone ibyo agemurira inkotanyi ziri ku rugamba muri Kongo anabone uko abijyana kubicuruza aho abasirikari be bari mu ngirwa butumwa bwa Loni hirya no hino kw’isi, ni muri ubwo buryo uwo muyobozi yatanze itegeko ryo guhinga ibigori gusa kandi abanyarwanda bakabuzwa kubiryaho! 
 
Ingaruka:
Kubera ibyo byemezo by’uwo muyobozi, inzara izakomeza ibe karande mu Rwanda, ndetse narwo ruzuma. Muri iki gihe abanyarwa, abana n’abakuru barwaye indwara zikomoka kumirire mibi (Bwaki…) ibyo bigatuma abantu benshi bari gupfa amarabira bakabyita malariya cyangwa indwara z’ibyorezo kandi ari inzara! Kubuza abaturage guhinga ibihingwa bitite uburebure buri hejuru y’ivi kandi n’amashyamba agatemwa ngo ni ingamba zo kurwanya umwanzi bizakurura ingorane z’uko ibiyaga n’imigezi bizakama.
Ibi biyaga bishobora kuzakama bidatinze!

Ibi biyaga bishobora kuzakama bidatinze!

Ibi bishushanyo(hejuru) twabitunganyije twifashishije amafoto y’ibyogajuru ni urugero rwerekana ko amazi adufatiye runini kandi ko ikiyahungabanyije kigomba guhekura igihugu. Nubwo ingaruka zose tutahita tuzibona ubu ariko inkwi n’amazi biri inyuma. Harahagazwe! Ubwo se turaraga iki ubuvivi n’ubuvivure. Ni muhagurukire rimwe mukemure icyo kibazo amazi atararenga inkombe. 
  
Hafi ya Rusumo hari agasozi kitwa Kinyababa, inyababa bivuga imbeho nyinshi nimubona hahindutse ku mayaga muzamenye ko nta garuriro. Urwanda ruzaba rugiye kwuma nk’Umubari, kubera abagetsi bikunda ntibaharanire inyungu z’abaturage.
 
Biracyaza
 
Mubigejejweho n’Umusomyi wa VERITASINFO
w’i Rubona - rwa - Nzoga ya Murambi / Byumba
 

Commenter cet article

SIBOMANA FABIEN 06/01/2016 17:29

inkuruzawe nizafeke bigaragarako utaba mugihugu

Mwene 05/01/2015 20:00

Mise en demeure de Bonaventure Mureme Kubwimana à Veritasinfo: (voir site de ce fou)

Ainsi donc, le fou de Rouen débute l'année 2015 sans avoir apparemment été bien soigné surtout interné pour le retirer de la circulation... c'est dommage car, il reprend de plus belle ses divagations sur les notions il souffre d'une fixation maladive: akazu, abakiga, Président Juvénal Habyarimana...Il prétend maintenant qu'il devrait être cité par tous les sites qui publient sur le Rwanda, en prétendant avoir écrit et publié des "ouvrages", en réalité un ramassis de ses élucubrations maladives accumulés depuis des années de crise de démence!

Silas 08/01/2015 20:08

Qu’est-ce qu’il raconte ce fou de Mwene ou plutôt d’ancien caporal Emmanuel Neretse, ce déséquilibré, ce dévergondé rongé par l’alcool, le SIDA, le Diabète et les remords !

Gaspard 08/01/2015 18:33

Wowe Emmanuel Neretse wiyise Mwene,

Umusazi ni Agata Kanziga Nyirarutemayeze wamaze gushwarwa, ali mu bujulire, akaboroga imbere y’Abafaransa bamuhema, ngo aha arasaba ubuhungiro. Yamara kuboroga Abanyakazukazi bali bahali nabo bakalira. Maze birangira Abafaransa bamukubise imati mu mufutu ! Sawa sawa !

Umubyeyi ni nk’undi, Sha !

Augustin 08/01/2015 18:21

Mwene = Emmanuel Neretse

Moribond,

Gère bien ton SIDA et ton Diabète et laisse tranquille notre cher professeur, qui, lui, est en bonne santé.

Innocent 08/01/2015 18:05

Mwene,

Salopard ! Pantin !

Jean 08/01/2015 17:59

Ku Munyakazu wiyise Mwene,

Umusazi ni wowe wa mbwa we y’umusinzi ngo ni Emmanuel Neretse, imara gusinda ikinyalira. Umukambwe wacu mumushakaho iki mwa binywamaraso mwe.

Aho ntiwagize ngo ni cya gihe wali commandant wa Police Militaire, wica urubozo Abanyarwanda ntawe ubasha gukopfora.

Mara urwo uliho !

Ulimwengu 01/01/2015 19:30

Wavanze science (Histoire) n'amaranga mutima yawe yerekana idéologie na esprit partisan byawe birebana n'u Rwanda rw'ubu. None ibitajyenze neza mumateka y'u Rwanda byose ubyegetse ku batutsi,
urangije ujyize abazungu bose abere, Kayibanda na Habyarimana nabo ubagize abere. Président Kagame n'abatutsi nibo bonyine ugeretseho amakosa ? Nibyo bita l'Histoire orientée. Uretse ko ubwenge bwawe buke buteye agahinda, ariko biranashekeje kubona iyo manipulation de l'histoire yawe grosse comme un camion comme on dit, hariho ibicucu bimwe bishobora kuyemera.

humura 01/01/2015 11:22

Yego nibyo muhe inkuru abatazi ibyiwacu ariko dukeneye amakuru areba kure nukuvuga imbere ibyakera muzabivuge tumaze kwivuna umubisha....inzara zabayeho nonese Habyara asura za communes Murama,Bwakira nizindi yarebaga abakene nyakujya.rero twe gutaka ingoma runaka ubu no kwa Kagame nta nzara ikibuze ni democratie isesuye kuko tuzi gukors.....

kamali 31/12/2014 17:15

Ntibyoroshye! Nsomye ino nkuru y'amateka mpita mbona ko ibyabaye icyo gihe aribyo biri kwisubiramo muri iki gihe ! Byaba bigiye kuba impamo ko amateka azenguruka kuruziga !! Ndumiwe pee!!