Rwanda : Dusobanukirwe n’icyo “jenoside” ari cyo.

Publié le par veritas

Izi ni impunzi z'abanyarwanda muri Congo zurijwe gareyamoshi n'inkotanyi zijya kubica kuko ari abahutu, ubwose tuvuge ko ntaruhare ubutegetsi bwagize mu rupfu rwabo kuburyo bitakwitwa jenoside?

Izi ni impunzi z'abanyarwanda muri Congo zurijwe gareyamoshi n'inkotanyi zijya kubica kuko ari abahutu, ubwose tuvuge ko ntaruhare ubutegetsi bwagize mu rupfu rwabo kuburyo bitakwitwa jenoside?

Mu nkuru yasohotse kuri veritasinfo, taliki 12 Nyakanga, 2014, ifite umutwe ugira uti "Niba ubwicanyi bw'abatutsi mu minsi 100 bwariswe jenoside, ubwicanyi bumaze imyaka 24 bukorerwa abahutu kandi bugikomeje bugomba kwitwa iki?" Ubwanditsi bwa Veritasinfo burasaba abasomyi gutanga ibitekerezo byafasha gusobanura: kuki ubwicanyi bumwe bwitwa jenoside ubundi ntibwitwe uko kandi bwose bwaribasiye imbaga y'ubwoko runaka. Muri iri sesengura ndagerageza gutanga igisobanuro cy'icyo jenoside ari cyo mu rwego mpuzamahanga bityo abasomyi barusheho kumva impamvu ubwicanyi bw'ubwoko bumwe bwiswe jenoside ubundi bukaba butarabonerwa izina kabone n'ubwo ubukana cyangwa umubare w'ubwemejwe waba ari muke gusumba ubutaremejwe. Ibisobanuro ntanga ntabwo ari ibyo     nivanira mu mutwe cyangwa se ngo mbogamire ku bwoko runaka cyangwa se "iyemerabuhumyi" ry' ibyandikwa cyangwa se ibivugwa byose ku Rwanda hashingiye ku marangamutima n'ibogamirabwoko.

Mu masomo nize mu by’amateka n’imibanire mpuzamahanga harimo n’isomo rya “genocide”. Narihisemo kugirango ndusheho kumva inkomoko n’ibisobanuro by’ubwicanyi bwabaye mu Rwanda. Iryo somo rero ryanyunguye byinshi. Ariko gusobanurira abandi banyeshuli, abalimu ndetse n’abahanga mu bya jenoside ibyabaye mu Rwanda bikaba bitoroshye cyane cyane ko ubwo bwicanyi abantu batabwumva kimwe bagereranyije n’izindi jenoside zabaye ahandi, bagendeye kandi cyane cyane ku mpanvu zaziteye n’abo zakorerwaga.
 
Muri uko kwigishwa no gusoma za “genocides” zabaye hirya no hino kandi, naje kumenya ko nta jenoside iruta indi. Zose ni amahano agomba kurwanywa abantu bivuye inyuma. Igitangaje ni uko hari izimenyekana kurusha izindi. Nzinduwe cyane cyane rero no kugaragaza ko kubura ijambo mu Kinyarwanda risobanura ubwicanyi bwabaye mu Rwanda hagati ya Mata na Nyakanga 1994 nabyo bituma abantu batemeranywa kuri ayo mateka.
 
Ndasobanura kandi inkomoko y’ijambo jenoside kandi nerekane ibisobanuro byaryo bikoreshwa mu rwego mpuzamahanga. Ndasoza nsaba ko Abanyarwanda bashaka ijambo mu rurimi rwabo risobanura neza ubwo bwicanye. Ibyo bizatuma abantu bose bumva amateka kimwe bityo bigabanye ishyamirana rishingiye ku nyito.

Kuva amahano yagwiriye u Rwanda hagati y' uKwakira 1990 na Nyakanga 1994 yaba, abantu benshi ntibumvikana ku nyito y’ubwo bwicanyi ndenga kamere. Abanyarwanda ubwabo bagerageje kwita ubwo bwicanyi n’ubugizi bwa nabi byajyanaga “itsemba bwoko n’itsembatsemba”. Abanyamahanga bo babinyujije mu muryango w’Abibumbye ayo mahano bayise “genocide nyarwanda”. Ntibyatinze Leta y'u Rwanda iti ni “jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi”. None ubu nyuma hafi y’imyaka makumyabiri Loni nayo yahinduye inyito iti ni “jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi aho Abahutu n’abandi bishwe” (genocide against Tutsi in which Hutu and others were killed).

Ijambo “genocide” (cyangwa se jenoside mu Kinyarwanda) ni ijambo mpamya ko Abanyarwanda benshi batumva icyo rivuga (kereka abatekereza mu ndimi z’amahanga), cyane cyane ko ari ijambo mva mahanga kimwe n’ayandi nka revolisiyo, demukarasi, repubulika n’ayandi yagiye afata insiguro zitandukanye bikurikije inyungu z’abantu bahuriye mu bintu runaka ariko nkaba nkeka ko ayo magambo ashobora kuba afite ibisobanuro bitandukanye n’ibyo Abanyarwanda bayahaye.
 
Mu kutumva icyo ijambo jenoside rivuga rero hari bamwe mu Banyarwanda ubwira uti “mu Rwanda habaye jenoside” bigatuma mwabyanganira cyangwa se bikakuviramo kugaragara ko uri umwanzi w’ubutegetsi bwavuyeho nyuma y’iyo jenoside. Abandi nabo iyo udakoresheje iryo jambo (vuba aha ndetse byabaye ngombwa ko hongerwaho “yakorewe Abatutsi”) babona ko uri umuhakanyi w’ubwicanyi bwakozwe muri icyo gihe ndetse akenshi ukaba wanabizira.

Icyo Abanyarwanda bose bahurizaho  ariko ni uko hari ubwicanyi bwabaye kuva inkotanyi zatera bugahitana abantu ariko bugahindura ubukana kuva Habyalimana yishwe. Hari abantu benshi bapfuye mu gihe kitari kirekire cyane ugereranyije n'izindi ntambara zagiye zibasira abantu hirya no hino kw'isi. Abahakana mu mvugo ko nta jenoside yabaye mu Rwanda bashingira mukutumva icyo jenoside ivuga bikitwa ko yagombye kwitwa uko ari uko abantu bicwaga bashize burundu kandi ibyo bidashoboka.
 
Abanyarwanda bose ku mutima bazi ko hari ubwicanyi budasanzwe bwabayeho n’ubwo nta nyito yihariye babuha. Aha rero nkeka ko abize indimi bagombye gushaka ijambo risimbura “jenoside” kugirango n’umuntu utumva icyo rivuze abashe kwisanga mu gusobanura ubwicanyi bw’abaye nyuma y’uko Habyarimana apfiriye kugeza Inkotanyi zifashe ubutegetsi. Ari njye nabaza abanyarwanda baminuje mu  gusobanura ndimi z'amahanga bagashaka ijambo risobanura ubu bwicanyi bwabuze izina nyarwanda. Aha rero Abanyarwanda ntibahumvikanaho kuko ubu bwicanyi bamwe babuhera kuva inkotanyi zatera muri 1990 kugeza ubu bugikomeza mu gihe abandi nabo babuhera muri za 1959 kugeza Nyakanga 1994. Hari n’abakabya bakajya mu bihe bya cyami. Icyo bose bemeranyaho ni uko hari ubwicanyi bwabaye muri ibyo bihe byose. Ubwicanyi bwose ariko ntabwo buhabwa inyito ya jenoside.
 
Ubwicanyi bwabaye mu gihe cya cyami ndetse na 1959 ntabwo nabutindaho ntabwo nabonye kuko ntari nakabaho. Haba Loni haba n’ibitabo ntaho bivugwa ko ubwo bwicanyi kimwe na “muyaga” ya 1959 byari jenoside. Muri 1990 inkotanyi zitera bizwi ko zitaje zirasa mu kirere gusa. Ubwicanyi zakoze ntabwo nabonye n’amaso ariko narabwumvishe kuko niganye kandi nabonaga ababuhunze n’ababurokotse kandi narabusomye. Nabwo ntabwo bwiswe jenoside kuko butujuje ibyangombwa byo kwitwa jenoside.
 
Ubwo muri Mata 1994 n'ubwo ntabuhagazeho aho nari ndi muri ibyo bihe hari abantu bamwe bahigwaga n' abandi bigaragara ko hagamijwe kumarwaho umwe wese wari wiswe umwanzi, byaba ari byo cyangwa ari ugukeka. Abantu bahigwaga kw’ikubitiro nkeka ko abarusimbutse ari bake. Uko ubwicanyi bwagiye butinda mu karere nabagamo bwagiye buhindura isura n’abatarahigwaga ku ikubitiro batangiye guhigwa ndetse no kwicwa hatibanzwe ku bwoko gusa ariho ijambo “itsembabwoko n’itsembatsemba” ryenda kuvuga ibyabaye nyakuri. Ndetse biragaragara ko ari nayo nyito ya Loni muri kino gihe. Aha rero iyo ukoresheje imvugo rukomatanyo ngo jenoside yakorewe abatutsi kandi n’abatari bo barabigendeyemo numva atari byo kuko hagombye  gushakwa ijambo ribavuga bose kuko bose bazize impamvu imwe.

Iyo urebye jenoside yakorewe Abayahudi ari nayo yaje kuba ikitegererezo cyo guhimba ijambo “genocide” nibura hari ijambo bihariye ariryo “holocaust”. Uretse kumenya iri jambo rivuye mu bitabo hanyuma mu kwiga ayo mateka tukumva ko rivuga ubwicanyi bwakorewe Abayahudi ubundi nkeka ko ntumva icyo rivuga n’uburemere bwaryo. Wenda twemereko holocaust ari jenoside yakorewe Abayahudi. Mu iyicwa ry'Abayahudi hari andi matsinda y'abantu nayo yakorewe ubwicanyi nk'ubwoko bw'Abaroma, Abasinti, ibyimanyi, Abayehova n'ababanaga bahuje ibitsina "abatiganyi", mu kinyarwanda gishya.
 
Gusa bene gukorerwa iyo jenoside bayise izina bwite kugirango itandukane n’izindi zabaye hirya no hino. Iyo uvuze ngo “itsembabwoko”, cyangwa se “ihonyabwoko” mu Kirundi, ubundi byumvikana bwangu gusumba jenoside. Sinzi niba abanyarwanda bumva icyo jenoside ari cyo uretse kugendera mu kigare cy'abiyita injijuke. Gukomeza gukoresha ijambo “genocide” bizakomeza guteza impaka z’ubusa kubera ko abantu batumva icyo rivuze. Kuri politiki mpuzamahanga hari inyungu zo gukoresha iryo jambo mu bucamanza no gufashwa ku babukorewe cyangwa se ibihugu bwakozwemo mu kugisana no guhangana n'ingaruka z'ubwo bwicanyi.

Nk’uko bigarukwaho n’abahanga mu bya za jenoside (habayeho nyinshi n’izindi ziracyabaho) bemeza ko ijambo ari rishya (shya) ariko ko igikorwa risobanura ari icya kera. Ni ijambo rishya kuko ryahimbwe mu 1944 intambara ya kabiri y’isi (yose?) irimo irangira rihimbwe n’umuyahudi wize amategeko uvuka mu gihugu cya Pologne witwa Raphael Lemkin (ku ifoto kuruhande). Lemkin rero yashoboye guhunga ubwicanyi bwakorerwaga Abayahudi nka we ashobora guca mu Burusiya (bwari)bwunze Ubumwe(Soviet Union) akomereza mu Buyapani mbere yo kugera muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika aho yaje kwigisha mbere y’uko atabaruka mu 1959.
 
Byumvikane ko iri jambo ryahimbwe n'inzobere, ntiryavuye muri rubanda rugufi. Bivugwa kandi ko mbere yo guhimba ijambo “genocide” mu gusobanura ubwicanyi bwabaye, yari yabanje gutekereza andi magambo ariyo “barbarity” na vandalism” mu Kinyarwanda cyange gikeya nabyita “ubunyamaswa n’isenyagura”, ibi akaba aribyo byanaranze jonoside yakozwe mu Rwanda.

Mu 1948, Umuryango w’ Abibumbye wemeje iryo jambo hanemezwa ibisobanuro umuryango uzajya ugenderaho mu cyiswe “Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide”, ngenekereje ni Inama yo Gukingira no Guhana Icyaha cya Jenoside. Mu bisobanuro byatanzwe rero ijambo jenoside rivuga byinshi:

1. Kwica abantu, abahuriye cyangwa abanyamuryango b’ itsinda / igika/ igurupe cyangw’ ubwoko kanaka.

2. Kumugaza byaba ku mubiri cyangwa mu mutwe (imitekerereze) y’abo bantu bibumbiye hamwe.

3. Kubakorera ku bushake ibintu bituma bashira kw'isi baba bose cyangwa bamwe muri bo.

4. Kubafatira ingamba zigamije kubuza gukomeza kororoka.

5. Kubambura abana babo ngo badakomeza kororoka hanyuma ukabagabira ubundi bwoko.

Ntabwo rero iki gisobanuro ari ndakuka kuko hari abandi bantu benshi cyane cyane abarimu ba za univerisite n'abanditsi b'ibitabo bagiye batanga ubusobanuro bw’ubwicanyi bakeka ko ari “genocide”. Ni muri urwo rwego ubwicanyi bwabaye mu Burundi butitwa “genocide” gusa ahubwo ni “selective genocide” ni ukuvuga “ihonyabwoko rirobanura”. Mu Burundi hemejwe ko hicwaga cyane cyane abagabo b’abahutu bize , bajijutse cyangwa bakize. Aha rero tugereranyije no mu Rwanda ntabwo ari kimwe kuko muri Mata 1994 buri mututsi yagombaga gupfa.
 
Nk’uko nabivuze haruguru ariko hari n’abatari abatutsi bishwe. Ikibazo abasesenguzi cyangwa abanyepolitiki birengagiza ni ugushaka igisubizo cy’impamvu abatutsi bose bagombaga kwicwa aho kwica abize cyangwa abari ibyitso. Iyo mpamvu niyo pfundo ry’ikibazo cy’ubwicanyi bwabaye kuva muri Mata 1994. Mu bucamanza mpuzamahanga bibanda cyane ku gisobanuro cyemejwe n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye kuko baba bashaka guhana bamwe mu babukoze ariko ntibivugako aricyo cyonyine nsobanurajambo.
 
Niba rero ijambo jenoside ryarakoreshejwe haherewe ku bwicanyi bwakorewe Abayahudi mu Bulayi aho babaga hafi ya hose bazizwa idini kuko ubuyahudi mbere bitari ubwoko ahubwo byari ukwemera / iyobokamana ntiryagombye gukoreshwa mu Rwanda kuko Abatutsi bo mu Rwanda aribo bicwaga gusa kandi hari abatutsi mu bindi bihugu bikikije u Rwanda baticwaga. Ikindi kandi ntibaziraga iyobokamana. Ariko kandi tugomba kwibaza icyo baziraga. Icyo baziraga rero cyagombye kumenyekana hanyuma tukagiheraho dushaka ijambo risobanura ubwo bwicanyi aho kwitiza amagambo tutazi icyo avuga. Niba baraziraga amoko hagombye wenda gukoreshwa “ethnocide” (Itsembanwoko") niba twemera ko mu Rwanda haba amoko, bitihi se “fratricide” ("imarana rya kivandimwe") niba abanyarwanda bose biyita abavandimwe. Niba bitunaniye se tubwite “tutsicide”, (bityo natwe tuvumbure ijambo).

Mu zindi jenoside zizwi cyane harimo iya Arumeniya (Armenian genocide) yahitanye abaturage bo mu bwoko bw’ Abarumeniya b’Abawotomani (Ottoman Armenians) mu mwaka wa 1915 na 16. Harimo iya leta y’Abasoviyeti (Soviet State) yica Abakulak (Kulaks) kuva 1929 kugeza muri za 1933. Mbere gato y’iyo mu Rwanda habaye iyakozwe n’Abakimeri ruje (Khmer Rouge) bicaga abo mu bwoko bw’abaviyetinamu (Vietnamese) mu myaka ya za 1978 na 1979. Ese ubwicanyi burimo bukorwa muri santrafrika na Sudani y’epfo bwaba nabwo ari jenoside? Ubwicanyi rero bugambiriye kumara abantu kanaka mu gihugu runaka bwakozwe ku migabane yose y'isi kandi burakomeza kwigaragaza mu bihugu byinshi ariko siko bwose bwakwitwa jenoside.

Nk'uko nabivuze kuba Loni itaraterana ngo yemeze ko ubwicanyi ubu n'ubu ari jenoside ntibikuraho ko bwaba ari bwo hagendewe ku bisobanuro natanze haruguru. Loni ibyemeza hagamijwe umugambi wo guhana bamwe mu babuteguye rimwe na rimwe na bamwe mubabushyize mu bikorwa. Turebye ibyo Abakoloni bagiye bakorera abasangwabutaka hamwe na hamwe twabwita jenoside kandi singombwa kwitabaza Loni ngo twemere ubukana bw’ubwo bwicanyi cyane cyane muri Afurika y’epfo, Namibiya, Australiya na Amerika y’epfo n’iya ruguru. Ariko kuba Loni ititeguye guhana ababukoze ntibikuraho ko ababukoze bari bafite umugambi wo gutsemba abandi.

Ikindi abanyarwanda bamwe baheraho batinya kuvuga ijambo jenoside ni ukwibeshya ko rivuga kumara abatutsi bose. Nkuko bigaragara mu gisobanuro cya 3 haruguru, kugirango ubwicanyi bwitwe “jenoside”ntibisaba ko ubwoko bwicwa buba bwarimbutse (ntibishoboka, kereka Imana yonyine niyo yabukoze kandi nayo yasize Nowa n’umuryango we). Nta n’ubwo bisaba buri gihe ko abishwe babarirwa mu bihumbi byinshi. Aha birashoboka ko abahutu bishwe kuva 1990 kugeza ubu baba barenze abatutsi bishwe ariko umugambi wo kubica n'uburyo bishwe bikaba bitandukanye n'ubwakoreshejwe mu kwica abatutsi. Ikirebwa mu rwego mpuzamahanga ni umugambi unoze wo kubushyira mu bikorwa.

Ndlr: Ubwicanyi bw'i Kibeho bwakozwe n'ingabo za leta zica impunzi! Ubwo se nta ruhare leta ubifitemo? Ese ubwo bwicanyi ntibwateguwe na leta ?

Umugambi wagerwaho utagerwaho ntibikuraho ko hari jenoside yarimo itekerezwa cyangwa se yarimo ishyirwa mu bikorwa. Bamwe bati “byarahurudutse birakubita”iminsi mike nyuma y’irasa ry’indege hanyuma abantu benshi bagwa muri "muyaga nshya” yo muri Mata 1994. Ni muri urwo rwego uwiswe, wacyetswe cyangwa wabeshyewe ko ari umwanzi w’igihugu wese yagombaga kurimbuka. Kuba Leta yariho itarashoboye gukumira ubwo bwicanyi n'ubwo haba nta mugambi unoze wari wacuzwe bifatwa mu rwego mpuzamahanga ko ari ugutiza umurindi cyangwa se kwigira nyoni nyinshi kuko leta iyo ari yose ifatwa ko iba ifite ubushobozi bwo kuyobora abaturage bayo no gukumira imyivumbagatanyo yose. Ikindi abantu bagomba kumenya ni uko jenoside idashobora kwitwa uko niba atari leta ihagarariye ubwicanyi, igashishikariza abantu kwica abandi hafitwe umugambi wo kubarimbura.

Kuba leta yariho itarashoboye kubuhagarika bifatwa nk'aho yateshutse ku nshingano zo kurinda abaturage bayo nubwo yaba itarabuteguye yaba yarabuhagarikiye inabushishikariza abantu. Niba umuntu kanaka ku giti cye ahamagariye inshuti ze ngo bajye kurimbura abanzi be nta leta ibihaye umugisha ntabwo ibi bifatwa nka genocide. Urugero ni nk’umupoloso wajya mu rusengero runaka kubera urwango afitiye abagatolika agafata imbunda akarasa abahuriye muri uko kwemera bose n’ubwo nta bagatolika baba basigaye muri icyo gihugu ubu bwicanyi ntibushobora kwitwa jenoside. Ariko leta imukoresheje akabikora mw’izina ryayo yatangira kwica abenshi bagashobora gutoroka, ubucamanza mpuzamahanga buzemeza neza ko leta yari ifite umugambi wa jenoside yo kumara abo bantu bahuriye mw’idini runaka.
 
Urundi rugero ni urw'abaturage b'ubwoko runaka bafata amacumu n'amahiri bagatera ubundi bwoko baturanye bapfa se inzuri cyangwa amariba. N'ubwo batsemba abo baturanyi ariko bikagaragara ko nta mugambi leta yigeze igira mu gushishikariza cyagwa gufasha abo bantu, ubwo bwicanyi ntibwitwa jenoside. Niba ubwicanyi bumaze iminsi burimo kubera muri repubulika ya santrafrika na Sudani y’epfo bukorwa n’abantu guverinoma zibizi, zibigambiriye kandi zishishikariza igice kimwe kurimbura ikindi, nta shiti ko zaba ari jenoside mu maso y'ababibona n'ubwo izi leta n'ababushyira mu bikorwa batabyemera. Umubare rero w’abapfuye n'igihe bwamaze bukorwa sibyo bya ngombwa cyane mu rwego rw’amategeko. Itandukanyirizo riri hagati y'uburyo abatutsi n'abahutu bishwemo mu Rwanda n' uburyo gahunda yo kubica yakozwe.

Mu Rwanda rero Loni yemeje rugikubita ko ubwicanyi bwabaye mu Rwanda ari jenoside hagendewe ku gisobanuro cya jenoside cyemejwe kuva mu 1948. Kuba Loni Cyangwa guverinoma y’u Rwanda bahinduranya inyito ni impamvu za politike n’izubucamanza mpuzamahanga ariko ntibivuga ko ariyo nyito yonyine isobanura ubwicanyi bwabaye mu Rwanda. Ndahamya ko abahanga n’abanditsi b’ibitabo mu bumenyi bwa jenoside bafite ukundi babona.
 
Ikintu kimwe Abanyarwanda bagombye gukora ni ugushaka ijambo ry’ikinyarwanda risobanura ibyabaye hadakoreshejwe amagambo atumvikana icyo avuga.
Kugeza igihe Abanyarwanda batarumvikana ku nyito nyayo y’ibyababayeho birumvikana ko nta ntambwe igihugu cyaba gitera mu gusana imitima yajahajwe n’ubwicanyi ndengakamere bwabaye mu Rwanda.
 

Pancras M. Malani
Universite ya Cape Town.
Igisata cy’amateka

BA (Hons) Hist, UCT

Commenter cet article

KARAHARI 27/07/2014 00:10

iyi nyandiko yawe ni nziza, urashaka gusobanura ijambo jenocide! Ni byiza ko dusobanukirwa n'ibyatubayeho! Reka tureke abanyamategeko n'abanyamateka bazadushakire ijambo umunyarwanda wese yakumva! Ariko se mugihe ritaraboneka tuzakomeza duterane amagambo gusa? cg dukwiye kwicara hamwe tukaganira uko twababarirana , maze tukubaka igihugu cyacu! kuki se abishe bose badahanwa ko ariyo nzira ishoboka yo kubabarirana no kwiyunga!
Igihe cyose umututsi azumva ko umuhutu nawe yatakaje abantu nkabo yatakaje, ,go umuhutu yumve ko umututsi nawe yatakaje abantu batangira ingano kandi bose bazira ubusa ntaho tugana!
Mubona ko ari ibisanzwe ko uwishe umututsi ahigishwa uruhindu naho uwishe umuhutu akagororerwa? agahabwa intebe , akayobora abandi? nonese azareka kwica bigenze gute?

humura 24/07/2014 14:23

Ni byo koko ibyo wasobanuye icyo nakongeraho nuko ONU nayo ibifitemo uruhare runini.kandi USA yatanze indege yo kuranga aho twabaga tugeze nayo yashyigikiye irimburwa ry'impunzi.Hariya werekanye abari muri gariyamoshi.wibagirwa benshi batwikiwe mu mazu.iriya nkambi ya Obilo yiciwemo benshi.za Boende,wendji sekili,Mandaka aha biciye abantu mu bwato bwari bwerekeje I kinshasa.Iriya mahuma Fred Ibingira yamaze benshi.meme na Nyamwasa nubwo mwene wabo amumereye nabi.wumvise ibiganiro byabo

humura 24/07/2014 14:23

Ni byo koko ibyo wasobanuye icyo nakongeraho nuko ONU nayo ibifitemo uruhare runini.kandi USA yatanze indege yo kuranga aho twabaga tugeze nayo yashyigikiye irimburwa ry'impunzi.Hariya werekanye abari muri gariyamoshi.wibagirwa benshi batwikiwe mu mazu.iriya nkambi ya Obilo yiciwemo benshi.za Boende,wendji sekili,Mandaka aha biciye abantu mu bwato bwari bwerekeje I kinshasa.Iriya mahuma Fred Ibingira yamaze benshi.meme na Nyamwasa nubwo mwene wabo amumereye nabi.wumvise ibiganiro byabo

serrurier paris 20 24/07/2014 07:23

Je vous applaudis pour votre paragraphe. c'est un vrai charge d'écriture. Développez